Some of the young nobility of Judah were taken to Babylon. [28], In the Hebrew Bible, the captivity in Babylon is presented as a punishment for idolatry and disobedience to Yahweh in a similar way to the presentation of Israelite slavery in Egypt followed by deliverance. Jewish Museum, New York, NY. This period saw their transformation into an ethno-religious group who could survive without a central Temple. [8] Jehoiakim, the king of Judah, died during the siege[9] and was succeeded by his son Jehoiachin (also called Jeconiah) at the age of eighteen. After the defeat of Pharaoh Necho's army by the Babylonians at Carchemish in 605 BCE, Jehoiakim began paying tribute to Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon. 5,000-Year-Old Stone Paint Palette Unearthed In Küllüoba Mound, Pooka: Mythical And Not Entirely Benevolent Prankster In Irish Folklore, Secret Writing On Mummy Papyrus Revealed – Scan Technique Will Shed Light On Daily Life In Ancient Egypt. The Babylonian Exile and the restoration. He made attempts to organize opposition among the small states in the region but in vain. The city was kept under siege until the eleventh year of King Zedekiah.”, “…By the ninth day of the fourth month, the famine in the city had become so severe that there was no food for the people to eat. He encamped outside the city and built siegeworks all around it. God, therefore, punished Israel by allowing to suffer defeat and exile by Babylonian forces..." (Rue Loyal D. "Religion is Not about God"), Written by – A. Sutherland  - AncientPages.com Senior Staff Writer, Copyright © AncientPages.com All rights reserved. 36:22-23, Ezra 1:1-4). In the last decades of the century, Assyria was overthrown by Babylon, an Assyrian province. As such, Jews were given their own cities, where earlier exiled Jews welcomed them warmly. As their cousins in the northern kingdom of Israel fell into captivity by Assyria more than a century earlier, Judah's inhabitants now were taken to Babylon. The result was the rise of the synagogue among the Jews dispersed throughout the Babylonian Empire. (x) After three years of Babylonian rule, King Jehoiakim tried to overthrow the Babylonians but he died suddenly and was succeeded by his son Jehoiachin. [citation needed], This period saw the last high point of biblical prophecy in the person of Ezekiel, followed by the emergence of the central role of the Torah in Jewish life. The basic points about that event are as follows: First, the Babylonian empire defeated Judah in the late 7th century BC – i.e., close to 601 BC. Exile is one of the core, yet often overlooked, themes underlying the entire Biblical storyline. Pub. As prophesied in Scripture, the Jews would be allowed to return to Jerusalem after 70 years of exile, and so it happened. Exile (Hebrew galut), or forced migration, is a theme that recurs throughout the Hebrew Bible, starting with Adam and Eve, who are forced to leave Eden (Gen 3:23-24).The story of Israel’s formation begins when Abraham is exiled from his kin and his land to the land that Yahweh promises to him ().Jacob and Joseph spend time in exile and Moses lives his whole life in exile. The post-destruction term for the Jewish Diaspora was "Rome", or "Edom". And then, what had been the bustling, lively and vibrant Jewish nation was no more. The Babylonian Exile (586–538) marks an epochal dividing point in Old Testament history, standing between what were subsequently to be designated the pre-exilic and post-exilic eras. Unique 8,000 Year-Old Child Burial Reveals Its Secrets, Ancient Assyrian Tomb With 10 Skeletons And Ceramic Sarcophagi Unearthed In Iraq. It is an important period of biblical history because both the captivity/exile and the return and restoration of the Jewish nation were fulfillments of Old Testament prophecies. Only the tribe of Levi continued in its temple role after the return. Plant gardens and eat their fruit. Because of the Babylonian Captivity, Babylonia became the most important center of Jewish life during the Exile.We know a bit about Jewish thought and life because of some Jewish communities in Egypt, but virtually nothing from the Assyrian Captivity in 722 B.C. Some of the Jews probably refused to move due to the comforts of Babylon. After nine years of his reign, Zedekiah led Judah in rebellion against the king of Babylon one final time. Some 2,600 years ago, the Jews were forcibly taken to Babylon, where they remained as exiles for about 70 years. Like the Assyrians, the Babylonians deported vanquished peoples to maintain tighter control over conquered territories. This time the king of Babylon came and destroyed the city of Jerusalem, including the temple. Public Domain. Jewish Treatment During the 70 Years in Captivity . After the fall of Babylon to the Persian king Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE, exiled Judeans were permitted to return to Judah. [2] These deportations are dated to 597 BCE for the first, with others dated at 587/586 BCE, and 582/581 BCE respectively.[3]. [15], Nebuchadnezzar's siege of Jerusalem, his capture of King Jeconiah, his appointment of Zedekiah in his place, and the plundering of the city in 597 BCE are corroborated by a passage in the Babylonian Chronicles:[17]:293. Some Iraqi, Iranian and Georgian natives today trace their ancestry back to these exiles. [31] (Alternative dates are possible. Yahweh had promised to preserve the Jews in Judah, and yet, he permitted their removal. As told in 2 Kings 24:12–16, almost 10,000 prominent Jewish citizens like professionals, the wealthy, priests, and craftsmen were also forced to relocate to the city of Babylon. [1] Jehoiakim refused to pay tribute in Nebuchadnezzar's fourth year, which led to another siege in Nebuchadnezzar's seventh year, culminating with the death of Jehoiakim and the exile to Babylonia of King Jeconiah, his court and many others; Jeconiah's successor Zedekiah and others were exiled in Nebuchadnezzar's 18th year; a later deportation occurred in Nebuchadnezzar's 23rd year. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of AncientPages.com, Roberts Carlos C., Christian Education Teaching Methods - From Modern to Postmodern. On the one hand, this emphasized how serious the sin of Israel was. The so-called “people of the land” (‘am-hares’) were allowed to stay in Judah. Take wives and have sons and daughters. The stakes were high. Israel was exiled to Babylonia because the language of the Babylonians is akin to that of the Torah. The exile period had a profound and long-lasting influence on the Jews’ development outside their homeland. Treatment of the Jews in Babylon. According to the book of Ezra, the Persian Cyrus the Great ended the exile in 538 BCE,[15] the year after he captured Babylon. And I sat there among them” (Ezekiel 3:15). In this video, we'll see how Israel's exile to Babylon is a picture of all humanity's exile from Eden. At this time Jerusalem and the temple were destroyed and all the houses burned. According to the Bible, the Hebrew prophet Ezekiel (which means, "may God strengthen him" in Hebrew) was exiled to Babylon at age 25 with 3,000 other upper class jews exiled by the Babylonian armies. Many Israelites owned their own homes. In the following years, the court of Jerusalem was divided into two parties, one supporting Egypt, the other Babylon. Cyrus conquered Babylon, and then, in the very first year of his reign, he decreed that the Jews could return to Jerusalem to rebuild their temple. Ancient sources confirm that some of the Jewish population adopted the Chaldean religion, by giving names to their offspring after Chaldean deities. Nebuchadnezzar, on the other hand, took some of the vessels in the Jewish temple, bringing them to Babylon and dedicating them to Marduk. [17]:295, Archaeological excavations and surveys have enabled the population of Judah before the Babylonian destruction to be calculated with a high degree of confidence to have been approximately 75,000. . Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the city wall and the Temple, together with the houses of the most important citizens. 2 Chron. According to the Babylonian Chronicles, "the seventh year (of Nebuchadnezzar – 598 BC.) One of the events that is well known to students of the Bible is that of the “Babylonian captivity”. (xi) The Babylonian army marched on to Jerusalem and King Jehoiachin was forced to surrender in 597 BC leading to the first deportation of the exile to Babylon. It appears that the Jews returning from the Babylonian exile used the rubble to create dwellings. An artist's depiction of the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon and the destruction of Jerusalem and Solomon's temple. For example, the current Hebrew alphabet was adopted during this period, replacing the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet. "[21] Archaeological finds from Jerusalem testify that virtually the whole city within the walls was burnt to rubble in 587 BCE and utterly destroyed. Introduction. Many of them had been born in Babylon during the exile, and they knew nothing else. [12] Jehoiakim's uncle Zedekiah was appointed king in his place, but the exiles in Babylon continued to consider Jeconiah as their Exilarch, or rightful ruler. Between the second and the third wave, Jeremiah prophesied that the total time of captivity would be 70 years (Jeremiah 29:10). The Babylonian exile was a period in the history of ancient Israel. The Jews sent into exile, remained as a single group, which helped them preserve their cultural identity by living in their community in Babylon, until being finally allowed to return home in 538/539 BC, at the time, when the Persians overthrew the Chaldeans. Exile to Babylon. Many regarded exile as Yahweh’s use of foreign powers to punish his people. The prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel had argued (even before the fall of the city of Jerusalem) that the Jews would be punished for having fallen below the required standards. Most frequently the term "Babylon" meant the diaspora prior to the destruction of the Second Temple. Why 70 Years in Captivity? “…So in the ninth year of Zedekiah’s reign, on the tenth day of the tenth month, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon marched against Jerusalem with his whole army. The main historical books of the Old Testament were written to answer this question, so let’s take a closer look at them. Daniel’s career and even his life were on the line as was the life of the chief Babylonian official, Ashpenaz (Dan 1:10). The majority of the Jewish people were eventually exiled to Babylon – and were kept in captivity there for a number of decades. [20], Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonian forces returned in 588/586 BCE and rampaged through Judah, leaving clear archaeological evidence of destruction in many towns and settlements there. by Michael D Coogan. Yet by God’s grace, Daniel remained composed and maintained his integrity. Many settled in what is now northern Israel, Lebanon and Syria. 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