12 . Gonyaulax spinifera. In 2004, unusually high amounts of homoYTXs were detected in mussels. Species Gonyaulax turbynei Murray & Whitting, 1899. Your Mendeley pairing has expired. 23.566667 ~ 41.066667. Information about how to use the RightsLink permission system can be found at Depth. Dodge, and Gonyaulax spinifera Dodge. Humans may be For permission to reproduce, republish and ( ) are very close to G. ellegaardiae (Fig. Kansas – cyanobacteria bloom. Marine phytoplankton populations can undergo periods of explosive growth due to favorable environmental conditions. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This article is cited by the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. not otherwise permitted to reproduce, republish, redistribute, or sell any Supporting Information Due to an originally confusing description of the species and to the availability of very low number of deposited sequences the doubt arises whether the studied G. spinifera strains belong to the same species. ( ) and G. spinifera isolate A and B from Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand (Accession numbers: DQ151557 and DQ151558 ) by Rhodes et al. Users are Clementina M.M. The present work was performed in order to ascertain whether Adriatic G. spinifera was a toxic species. In relation to Gonyaulax spinifera, homo-YTX seems to be the main toxin produced by this species. Results indicate that the organism produced a substance (s) toxic to fishes and that the toxicity of the medium is increased if the dinoflagellate cytolyses. http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html. Previous reports have identified both nontoxic and toxic isolates of L. polyedrumfrom Spain, the United Kingdom, and California (3, 18, 43, 47, 58). Higher Classification: > Kingdom Chromista > Subkingdom Harosa > Infrakingdom Alveolata > Phylum Myzozoa > Subphylum Dinozoa > Infraphylum Dinoflagellata > Class Dinophyceae > Order Gonyaulacales > Family Gonyaulacaceae > Genus Gonyaulax Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparède & Lachmann) Diesing, 1866 Rank: Species Taxon Status: accepted However, although the taxonomy of the species complex G. spinifera remains largely unresolved, this study allowed to unambiguously link the presence of G. spinifera to recurring mussel toxicity episodes. 0.000 ~ 150.000 m Record acquisition … Species [ "unknown"] T2000569 WoRMS-ID: 0 # of DB-records (self+all-sibs): 121 # of non-Quantitative records (self+all-sibs): 9316 # of Time Series sites (self+all-sibs): 20 # of Barcodes (self+all-sibs): 0: no photos currently available: 44 Gonyaulax striata . Structure elucidation and relative toxicity of (24R)-24-hydroxyyessotoxin from a Namibian isolate of Gonyaulax spinifera Structure Elucidation and Relative Toxicity of (24R)‑24-Hydroxyyessotoxin from a Namibian Isolate of Gonyaulax spinifera. Reference taxon from NCBI Taxonomy. 95: 217 - 220 Oshima Y, Bolch CJ, and Hallegraeff GM (1992) Toxin composition of resting cysts of Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae). The planktonic phototrophic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax whaseongensis sp. Since then, farmed molluscs are yearly found to contain YTXs for long periods with a severe impact on aquaculture activities. Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparede & Lachmann) Diesing, 1866 synonym: UKSI Classification unranked Biota kingdom Chromista phylum Myzozoa class Dinophyceae order Gonyaulacales family Gonyaulacaceae genus Gonyaulax species Gonyaulax spinifera. & Account Managers, For The algal identification was based on the type description and cyst form. Photo courtesy of TDWP . Abstract. Comparing similar sequences of G. spinifera strains contained in GenBank, divergences among the Adriatic strains and strains of different geographical origin emerged; on the contrary, a good similarity was evidenced (1.3%) between the Adriatic isolate sampled in 2006 and two New Zealand strains; the similarity was confirmed also by the presence in all strains of YTXs, although the New Zealand strains were analyzed by ELISA which could not distinguish among the different YTX analogues. 24-HydroxyYTX demonstrated reduced toxicity compared to YTX. Photo courtesy of N. Clercin . Please reconnect, Authors & Species recognized by EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1 and EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1. Electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Cultures of G. spinifera were set up which gave us the opportunity to investigate toxin content and profile of the dinoflagellate, for the first time, by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) and to perform a molecular characterization of the species through rDNA sequencing. Liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis of a Namibian strain of Gonyaulax spinifera showed the presence of a number of yessotoxins (YTXs). 124.163333 ~ 141.066667. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric.com with additional details about the score and the social media presence for the given article. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Diatoms . These instances are called algal blooms. Librarians & Account Managers, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.9b00318. The process of isolating cells and testing each isolate individually for YTX production during toxic blooms are labor intensive, and this impedes our ability to respond quickly to toxic … Marine phytoplankton are microscopic, single celled plants that live in the ocean. 20 per page; 50 per page; 100 per page; Search Results. LC-HRMS/MS chromatogram showing YTX profile in Namibian G. spinifera; comparison of COSY and TOCSY spectra for 1 and 7; ROESY spectrum between 3.6 and 3.4 ppm; LC-MS/MS chromatograms showing extracted traces of hydroxyYTX and YTX from reference materials and an Italian P. reticulatum extract; representative phenotypes of zebrafish larvae exposed to dilution of either 1 or 7; NMR spectra for 7 (1H, 13C, COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY); NMR spectra for 1 (1H and 13C); LTQ MS fragmentation pathways of 1 and 7; NMR spectroscopic data for 1 and 7 (PDF). Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. ASAP Structure Elucidation and Relative Toxicity of (24 R )-24-Hydroxyyessotoxin from a Namibian Isolate of Gonyaulax spinifera Biol. nov It is notable that the 28S rDNA sequences from the strains called G. spinifera GSA0602 from the Adriatic Sea (Accession number: EU805591 ) by Riccardi et al. The American Chemical Society holds a copyright ownership interest in any copyrightable Supporting Gonyaulax spinifera. Reviewers, Librarians You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley! Gonyaulax spinifera from the Adriatic sea: Toxin production and phylogenetic analysis. Introduction . 1. In 1995, yessotoxins (YTXs) were detected for the first time in Adriatic mussels and their presence was subsequently linked to the presence of Protoceratium reticulatum and occasionally Lingulodinium polyedrum in seawater. Several planktonic species are toxic and are sometimes abundant enough to colour water and cause the phenomenon called red tide, which may kill fish and other animals. from the ACS website, either in whole or in part, in either machine-readable form or any other form Gonyaulax, genus of dinoflagellate algae (family Gonyaulacaceae) that inhabit marine, fresh, or brackish water. You have to login with your ACS ID befor you can login with your Mendeley account. CRIS Current Research Information System. See more. Species Gonyaulax verior Sournia, 1973. Information. Culturing the G. spinifera strain afforded sufficient biomass for … The north-western coasts of the Adriatic sea have long been subjected to recurring cases of harmful algae blooms and concomitant mussel contamination. Recently, the cysts of Protoceratium reticulatum, Gonyaulax spinifera and Lingulodinium polyedrum have been identified in the silt of the Yellow Sea (12). Toxicity has been confirmed for eight dinoflagellates species: Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii, Dinophysis fortii, Gonyaulax spinifera, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Ostreopsis cf. Harmful algal blooms of the Benguela eastern boundary upwelling system. This is a unicellular dinoflagellate that is one of the species that create red tides when their numbers become very high during an algal bloom. redistribute this material, requesters must process their own requests via the RightsLink permission Toxicity (cyanobacteria only) Texas – golden algae bloom . Yessotoxin (YTX) is a globally distributed marine toxin produced by some isolates of the dinoflagellate species Protoceratium reticulatum, Lingulodinium polyedrum, and Gonyaulax spinifera within the order Gonyaulacales. It is a photoautotroph. Photo courtesy of TPWD and G. Turner . Find more information about Crossref citation counts. Toxicon 30: 1539 - 1544 Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library. In addition, several YTX- Gonyaulax 57; Prorocentrum 18; toxicity 17; Alexandrium 14; algal blooms 14; more Subject » Search 57 Search Results « Previous | 1 - 20 of 57 | Next » Select all Unselect all Sort by relevance relevance; newest; oldest; title; Number of results to display per page. These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. In autumn 2002, parasitic dinoflagellates of the genus Amoebophrya Koeppen infected populations of the bloom‐forming thecate dinoflagellates Alexandrium affine (Inoue and Fukuyo) Balech and Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparede and Lachmann) Diesing in coastal waters of Korea. G. spinifera has been recently associated with YTX production in New Zealand. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. Culturing the G. spinifera strain afforded sufficient biomass for purification of the new analogue through a series of solvent partitioning and chromatographic steps, yielding ∼0.9 mg as a solid. Liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis of a Namibian strain of Gonyaulax spinifera showed the presence of a number of yessotoxins (YTXs). In this period, a careful look at the phytoplankton composition highlighted that P. reticulatum and L. polyedrum were nearly absent in seawater whereas the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax spinifera was present at high densities. Fornisce a ricercatori, amministratori e valutatori gli strumenti per monitorare i risultati della ricerca, aumentarne la visibilità e allocare in modo efficace le risorse disponibili. Golden Algae . Ogata T, Ishimaru T, and Kodama M (1987) Effect of water temperature and light intensity on growth rate and toxicity change in Protogonyaulax tamarensis. Cultures of Lingulodinium polyedrum, Protoceratium reticulatum, and Gonyaulax spinifera in bold are toxic, and cultures of Lingulodinium polyedrum and Gonyaulax spinifera in italics are nontoxic. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2008.06.008. Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID. Article Views are the COUNTER-compliant sum of full text article downloads since November 2008 (both PDF and HTML) across all institutions and individuals. Longitude. All types of algae can cause harmful algal blooms under the right conditions. Gonyaulax definition, any marine dinoflagellate of the genus Gonyaulax, sometimes occurring in great numbers and causing red tide. The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.9b00318. Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparede & Lachmann) Diesing. system. Gonyaulax spinifera. Biotoxin Metrology, National Research Council Canada, 1411 Oxford Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3Z1, Canada, Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, National Research Council Canada, 1411 Oxford Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3Z1, Canada, Structure Elucidation and Relative Toxicity of (24. YTX production within and among dinoflagellate species tested to date is highly variable. Mangin, 1922. Principal among these were YTX (1), homoYTX (2), and a tentative hydroxylated analogue that did not correspond to any previously confirmed YTX structures. Gonyaulax polyedra; Gonyaulax spinifera; Gonyaulax apiculata; Gonyaulax polygramma Stein 1833; Gonyaulax fragilis (Schütt) Kofoid 1911; Gonyaulax ellegaardiae Mertens 2015 ; Gonyaulax is a genus of dinoflagellates with the type species Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparède et Lachmann) Diesing. Purified 24-hydroxyYTX was quantitated by NMR, and its relative toxicity evaluated using two embryonic zebrafish toxicity assays. 20 per page . Toxicity of Gonyaulax ellegaardiae sp. Mar. Occurrence records → [Map・Summary] Record acquisition range With latitude and longitude information: 100 % Latitude. Liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis of a Namibian strain of Gonyaulax spinifera showed the presence of a number of yessotoxins (YTXs). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Gonyaulax belongs to red dinoflagellates and commonly causes red tides. Two G. spinifera isolates, sampled in different years, were analyzed and resulted to be different in both toxin content and gene sequence: the isolate sampled in 2005 produced only low levels of YTX (5.4 pg cell-1) while that sampled in 2006 contained higher toxin amounts, namely 33.4 pg cell-1 of homoYTX and 3.6 pg cell-1 of YTX; the two isolates also differed in 111 and 176 nucleotide positions, … Photo courtesy of T. Bennett . Cultures of Protoceratium reticulatum for which there are conflicting studies on toxicity are indicated with double asterisks (**) after the name. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. What Types of Algae Cause Blooms? Structure Elucidation and Relative Toxicity of (24 R )‑24-Hydroxyyessotoxin from a Namibian Isolate of Gonyaulax spinifera Liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis of a Namibian strain of Gonyaulax spinifera showed the presence of a number of yessotoxins (YTXs). 2 publications. without permission from the American Chemical Society. THE TOXICITY OF GONYAULAX MONILATA HOWELL TO MUGIL CEPHALUS Jean A. Gates1 and William B. Wilson U. S. Fish and Wildlife Scrvicc, Galveston, Texas ABSTRACT Laboratory expcrimcnts wcrc conducted to dctcrmine the effects of in u&o cultures of the mnrinc dinoflagellate, Gonynulax monilntn Ilowcll, on fishes. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Gonyaulax spinifera is a species of dinoflagellates in the family Gonyaulacaceae. 13 . Occurrence records. IRIS è la soluzione IT che facilita la raccolta e la gestione dei dati relativi alle attività e ai prodotti della ricerca. http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2020.101898, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-409547-2.14816-4. Principal among these were YTX (1), homoYTX (2), and a tentative hydroxylated analogue that did not correspond to any previously confirmed YTX structures. It is native to Rio Grande do Norte, Santa Catarina, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, and Rio Grande do Sul. Files available from the ACS website may be downloaded for personal use only. Gonyaulax spinifera. Recently, ELISA analyses on single cells indicated Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparède et Lachmann) Diesing 1866 from New Zealand as a YTX producer (Rhodes et al., 2006), thus correlating for the first time the occurrence of such microalga in seawater to mussel toxicity. Gonyaulax spinifera, previously considered a non-YTX producer, was isolated from the seawater samples and production of YTX by the cells grown in culture was determined by identification of YTXs by ELISA. The species Gonyaulax spinifera and Lingulodinium polye-drum, which may also produce YTX, have been identified in certain European and American countries (4,7-11). Santos, Artur M.S. Structure. Eight-Membered Rings With One Oxygen Atom. Silva. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects of in vitro cultures of the marine dinoflagellate, Gonyaulax monilata Howell, on fishes. Euglena . Determination of the toxin content of natural samples (mussels and net haul plankton samples) as well as monitoring of the dinoflagellate species present in seawaters allowed us to correlate the presence of G. spinifera to that of homoYTX in mussels. Photo credit: A Paquin. NMR spectroscopy, ion-trap mass spectrometry, and HRMS identified the new analogue as 24-hydroxyYTX (7). ). Gonyaulax spinifera from the Adriatic sea: Toxin production and phylogenetic analysis Two G. spinifera isolates, sampled in different years, were analyzed and resulted to be different in both toxin content and gene sequence: the isolate sampled in 2005 produced only low levels of YTX (5.4 pg cell−1) while that sampled in 2006 contained higher toxin amounts, namely 33.4 pg cell−1 of homoYTX and 3.6 pg cell−1 of YTX; the two isolates also differed in 111 and 176 nucleotide positions, respectively, in the SSU and partial LSU rDNA genes. 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