There has been considerable dispute as to the author of On the Sublime. [5], German film director Werner Herzog claims to have an affinity with the work of Longinus, in a talk entitled "On the Absolute, the Sublime and Ecstatic Truth", presented in Milan. It contains 17 chapters on figures of speech, which have occupied critics and poets ever since they were written. The sublime is … Longinus lists how rhetorical devices can be sublime and how a human must control them and not allow them to run away with passion. It should not only be distinct and excellent in composition but also move the readers along with the effects of pleasure and persuasion. p 109 on Grace "In this ease, this roundness, this The author defines sublimity (hypsos) in literature as “the echo of greatness of spirit”—that is, the moral and imaginative power of the writer that pervades his work. Since Longinus' rhetorical formula avoids dominating his work, the literature remains "personal and fresh," unique in its originality. [6] As such, Longinus emphasizes that, to be a truly great writer, authors must have "moral excellence". This is the first known instance in which greatness in literature is ascribed to qualities innate in the writer rather than his art. After an ancient Greek treatise on the sublime was retranslated into English in 1712, writers began taking an interest in it as “an identifiable feeling that was both pleasurable and morally good.” Suddenly, people began valuing landscapes based on their power to “arouse the mind to sublimity.” Since the correct translation includes the possibility of an author named "Dionysius", some have attributed the work to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a writer of the 1st century AD. Let there be earth, and there was. Abstract: This paper gives an account for Longinus ’s Ideas on the Sublime. Joseph Newirth of the minister of Queen Zenobia, who was put to death after the fall of Palmyra in a.d. 273 (Gibbon, ch. The Longinian sublime implies a dynamic overlapping, or reciprocity, between the orders of the symbolic and the imaginary" writes Guerlac (286). His first answer is that good writing partakes of what he calls the "sublime." (see note 2), 55 contributes to such an impression and is less in accord with the spirit of the whole than the translation of W. H. Fyfe, It is what is astounding. "[5] Despite his criticism of ancient texts, Longinus remains a "master of candor and good-nature". After an ancient Greek treatise on the sublime was retranslated into English in 1712, writers began taking an interest in it as “an identifiable feeling that was both pleasurable and morally good.” Suddenly, people began valuing landscapes based on their power to “arouse the mind to sublimity.” Longinus - On the Sublime Chapterwise Summary On the Sublime is a work on Literature by Longinus that falls into the category of Literary Criticism of modern world. A writer's goal is not so much to express empty feelings, but to arouse emotion in her audience. A Reading of Longinus’ On the Sublime 1. One Cassius Longinus, born about 210, was a critic, scholar, and teacher of rhetoric in the 3rd century and a friend and teacher of Porphyry, the pupil of Plotinus and author of many literary works. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. There has been considerable dispute as to the author of On the Sublime. This work is actually in the form of a letter written by Longinus to Terentian. The sublime in Longinus is about being sincere, but a sincerity that can be forced. This is thought to have been written in the 1st century AD though its origin and authorship are uncertain. The first known study of the sublime is ascribed to Longinus: Peri Hupsous/Hypsous or On the Sublime. Justin Murray. Prickard, Longinus on the Sublime (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906) 11 and Roberts, op. On the Sublime, Greek Peri hypsous, treatise on literary criticism by Longinus, dating to about the 1st century ce. [1] There remains the possibility that the work belongs to neither Cassius Longinus nor Dionysius of Halicarnassus, but, rather, some unknown author writing under the Roman Empire, likely in the 1st century. The dissolution of the self through thetranscendent experience of hypsos provides amode to transcend the materialist tyranny ofcontemporary socio-political reality. Happy to help. 9 Vol. ", Given his positive reference to Genesis, Longinus has been assumed to be either a Hellenized Jew or readily familiar with the Jewish culture. The earliest surviving manuscript, from the 10th century, was first printed in 1554. The Longinian sublime implies a dynamic overlapping, or reciprocity, between the orders of the symbolic and the imaginary" writes Guerlac (286). NOW 50% OFF! Publication date 1899 Publisher University Press Collection americana Digitizing sponsor Google Book from the collections of unknown library Language English. Weiske's edition, first issued in 1809, marked a turning-point in the trend of scholarly opinion, and Longinus' claim to authorship is now generally rejected, often summarily. He wrote in Greek and probably lived in the 1st century AD. The word sublime, argues Rhys Roberts, is misleading, since Longinus' objective broadly concerns "the essentials of a noble and impressive style" than anything more narrow and specific. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, Dr George P. Landow, "Longinus" "On Great Writing" and the 18th-century Sublime", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=On_the_Sublime&oldid=976083484, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 10th century - The original treatise, before translation, is copied into a medieval manuscript and attributed to "Dionysius or Longinus.". Dionysius maintained ideas which are absolutely opposite to those written in the treatise; with Longinus, there are problems with chronology. The work ends with a dissertation on the decay of oratory, a typical subject for the time when authors such as Tacitus, Petronius and Quintilian, who also dealt with the subject, were alive. He also earned a reputation as the most famous scholar of his time. Happy to help. [2] Matters are further complicated in realizing that ancient writers, Longinus' contemporaries, do not quote or mention the treatise in any way. Boileau,in his introduction to his version of the ancient Treatise on theSublime, says that he is making no valueless present to his age. He quotes from Longinus: "For our soul is raised out of nature through the truly sublime, sways with high spirits, and is filled with proud joy, as if itself had created what it hears.". 4 Ordinary Idolatrous Pleasure and the Fateful Fashioning of an Adolescent Boy. 0. On The Sublime (Hindi) | Longinus | Summary and Analysis | English Literature || Hi! Herzog says that he thinks of Longinus as a good friend and considers that Longinus's notions of illumination has a parallel in some moments in his films. The dissolution of the self through thetranscendent experience of hypsos provides amode to transcend the materialist tyranny ofcontemporary socio-political reality. [1] In general, Longinus appreciates, and makes use of, simple diction and bold images.[2]. A Reading of Longinus’ On the Sublime 1. Welcome to my channel. See also sublime. [6] Finally, Longinus' treatise is difficult to explain in an academic setting, given the difficulty of the text and lack of "practical rules of a teachable kind. 0. This book is not as comprehensive as its title might suggest. 'Robert Doran’s new book provides a much-needed systematic, detailed and comprehensive survey of the idea of the sublime, tracing it from its origin in the obscure third-century work attributed to Longinus, through its major expositors in the modern era, including Boileau, Dennis, Burke, and especially Kant, who gets the most detailed treatment. Welcome to my channel. Onel Brooks. Longinus. Its author is unknown, but is conventionally referred to as Longinus (/lɒnˈdʒaɪnəs/; Ancient Greek: Λογγῖνος Longĩnos) or Pseudo-Longinus. On the Sublime is given a 1st-century- ce date because it was a response to a work of that period by Caecilius of Calacte, a Sicilian rhetorician. He also earned a reputation as the most famous scholar of his time. [6], The effects of the Sublime are: loss of rationality, an alienation leading to identification with the creative process of the artist and a deep emotion mixed in pleasure and exaltation. The translation of Longinus 6.1 KpLSTLs rCv Xo6yvw as "judgement of style" in A. [5], Longinus critically applauds and condemns certain literary works as examples of good or bad styles of writing. 2 The Silence of Ajax: Reading Longinus Against Himself . [5] Moreover, Longinus stresses that transgressive writers are not necessarily shameless fools, even if they take literary risks that seem "bold, lawless, and original". The translation of Longinus 6.1 KpLSTLs rCv Xo6yvw as "judgement of style" in A. Thus oratory became merely an exercise in style. This work is actually in the form of a letter written by Longinus to Terentian. Longinus On the Sublime: The Greek Text Edited After the Paris Manuscript, with Introduction ... by William Rhys Roberts. This is thought to have been written in the 1st century AD though its origin and authorship are uncertain. Notvalueless, to a generation which talks much about style and method inliterature, should be this new rendering of the noble fragment, longattributed to Longinus, the Greek tutor and political adviser ofZenobia. Longinus (or Pseudo-Longinus) is the name conventionally given to the author of an influential work of literary criticism, On the Sublime, the author's real name being unknown. Dionysius is generally dismissed as the potential author of On the Sublime, since the writing officially attributed to Dionysius differs from the work On the Sublime in style and thought. Instead of Socrates’ myth of the soul and the growth of the wings of immortality through philosophical discourse and love, Longinus in On the Sublime advances the view that the experience of greatness is an avenue of access to that which passes understanding. It is regarded as a classic work on aesthetics and the effects of good writing. [5], Despite Longinus' critical acclaim, his writing is far from perfect. Thanks to Italian scholar Amati, Cassius Longinus is no longer assumed to be the writer of, 20th century - Although the text is still little quoted, it maintains its status, apart from Aristotle's, This page was last edited on 1 September 2020, at 03:15. On The Sublime (Hindi) | Longinus | Summary and Analysis | English Literature || Hi! The sublime, for Longinus, is in several respects an intriguing literary and psychological reconception of Plato’s philosophic rhetoric and Socrates’ myth … The author further suggests that greatness of thought, if not inborn, may be acquired by emulating great authors such as Homer, Demosthenes, and Plato. This isn't the only contradiction, but one that is representative of the paradoxes of art. " [9], According to this statement, one could think that the sublime, for Longinus, was only a moment of evasion from reality. A Reading of Longinus’s On the Sublime 2. Longinus - On the Sublime Chapterwise Summary. [2] As for social subjectivity, Longinus acknowledges that complete liberty promotes spirit and hope; according to Longinus, "never did a slave become an orator". (his friend) He later moved to Asia Minor, where he achieved the position of advisor to Zenobia, the queen of Palmyra. The earliest text on the sublime was written sometime in the first or third century AD by the Greek writer (pseudo-) Longinus in his work On the Sublime (Περὶ ὕψους, Perì hýpsous).Longinus defines the literary sublime as "excellence in language", the "expression of a great spirit" and the power to provoke "ecstasy" in one's readers. 1. “On the Sublime” or “Peri Hupsous” is a piece ascribed to Longinus that was published in the 1550’s but was supposed to have been written early on the first century A.D. On the Sublime is both a treatise on feel and a work of abstract feedback. On the Sublime is given a 1st-century-ce date because it was a response to a work of that period by Caecilius of Calacte, a Sicilian rhetorician. 5 Experiencing the Sublime through Encounters with the Real. The paper mainly deals with what Sublime is--- “the image of greatness of mind”, the five main sources of sublimity--- grandeur of thoughts, a vigorous and spirited treatment of the passions, a certain artifice in the employment of figures, dignified expression, majesty and elevation of structure. His central question is, what is good writing, and how may it be achieved? CXLIV.2.23 Hense) has the same reading as Longinus, which involves a pun on the two meanings of [...], “girl,” and “pupil of the eye” (pupula)—a sense presumably derived from the fact that, if you look into someone’s pupil closely, you see a doll-like image of yourself. (DOC) Longinus' theory of the Sublime | Niharika Dugar ... ... Notes Rare, too, is Vaucher’s critical essay(1854), which is unluck… Moreover, about one-third of the treatise is missing;[5] Longinus' segment on similes, for instance, has only a few words remaining. when the Greek critic Longinus first presented his concept of the sublime in his aesthetic treatise On Sublime (Peri hypsous). The emphasis will be on understanding the role that the sublime plays within the aesthetic models cit. xi). This isn't the only contradiction, but one that is representative of the paradoxes of art. " The author is unknown. Weiske's edition, first issued in 1809, marked a turning-point in the trend of scholarly opinion, and Longinus' claim to authorship is now generally rejected, often summarily. (iv) 30: Introduction to the section on language. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. "[8] The concept of the sublime is generally accepted to refer to a style of writing that elevates itself "above the ordinary". Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. p 109 on Grace "In this ease, this roundness, this LONGINUS: ON THE SUBLIME FIVE PRINCIPAL SOURCES OF SUBLIMITY IN LITERATURE By the word ‘sublime’ Longinus,means elevation or loftiness – all that raises style above the ordinary, and gives it distinction in its widest and truest sense. In chapter 39 of On the Sublime Longinus declines to discuss the role of emotion, which he has characterized as one source of greatness or sublimity in writing, because, he writes, he has “adequately presented [his] conclusions on this subject in two published works.” (All translations are by G.M.A. On the Sublime is both a treatise on feel and a work of abstract feedback. He also earned a reputation as the most famous scholar of his time. The sublime has a long history, dating back to the first century C.E. [3][2][4] Cassius is a dubious possibility for author of the treatise because he wrote in the 3rd century, and no literature later than the 1st century AD is mentioned (the latest is Cicero, who died in 43 BC)[clarification needed] and the work is now usually dated to the early 1st century AD. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. "[2], Despite its faults, the treatise remains critically successful because of its "noble tone," "apt precepts," "judicious attitude," and "historical interests". Unlike other first century Treatises, the On the Sublime by Longinus has passed through the filtering of time and survived to be still relevant for usage for today's writers and orators. Prickard, Longinus on the Sublime (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906) 11 and Roberts, op. Longinus defines sublime as a kind of loftiness and excellence in language raising the style of the ordinary language. It is written in an epistolary form and the final part, possibly dealing with public speaking, has been lost. This is a classical text on aesthetics and proper style in writing and rhetoric, including commentary on various ancient Greek works such as those of Plato, Homer, and Demosthenes. [5] The treatise is also limited in its concentration on spiritual transcendence and lack of focus on the way in which language structures determine the feelings and thoughts of writers. 'Robert Doran’s new book provides a much-needed systematic, detailed and comprehensive survey of the idea of the sublime, tracing it from its origin in the obscure third-century work attributed to Longinus, through its major expositors in the modern era, including Boileau, Dennis, Burke, and especially Kant, who gets the most detailed treatment. A lacuna follows. Indeed there are even differencesin the details of style and language, which surely makeidentification impossible: to take a small but notablematter, On the Sublimeregularly has πάντες ἑξῆς for“absolutely all,” whereas Longinus has ἐφεξῆς in the sameidiom (Russell, 1964, xxv n.1). 31: The discussion is now about metaphor, and especially vivid and idiomatic examples. On the Sublime is a compendium of literary exemplars, with about 50 authors spanning 1,000 years mentioned or quoted. Until the beginning of the nineteenth century the treatise On sublimity was universally attributed to the third-century critic, rhetorician and philosopher Cassius Longinus. But on the contrary, he thought that literature could model a soul, and that a soul could pour itself out into a work of art. Longinus is reported to have written answers for the Queen, which were used in response to Aurelian, the man who would soon rise to power as the Roman emperor.[3]. Cassius was executed by Aurelian, the Roman emperor who conquered Palmyra in 273 AD, on charges of conspiring against the Roman state. 16th century - The treatise is ignored by scholars until it is published by, 17th century - Sublime effects become a desired end of much, 19th century - Early in the 19th century, doubts arise to the authorship of the treatise. Conclusion. On the Sublime was a letter written to a friend It is also a profound, insightful literary treatise The writer put forward the definition of Sublime on aesthetic level by the first time Many British and German men of letters were also influenced by Sublime Milton once claimed that Longinus was always the tutor he worshipped. “Longinus,” On the Sublime (1st or 3rd century AD) Longinus promotes an “elevation of style” and an essence of “simplicity”: “the Sublime refers to a style of writing that elevates itself above the ordinary”… five sources of the Sublime: “great thoughts, strong emotions, certain … Another influence on the treatise can be found in Longinus' rhetorical figures, which draw from theories by a 1st-century BC writer, Caecilius of Calacte. In view of Longinus’ comment, the passage was perhaps put together by earlier critics, and is not simply a confused quotation from memory. [10] Greene also claims that Longinus' focus on hyperbolical descriptions is "particularly weak, and misapplied. (1) THE SUBLIME FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE 19TH CENTURY We will look Longinus’ treatise followed by a selection of texts drawn from the British and German traditions in the 18th and 19th centuries. “On the Sublime” or “Peri Hupsous” is a piece ascribed to Longinus that was published in the 1550’s but was supposed to have been written early on the first century A.D. “Longinus,” On the Sublime (1st or 3rd century AD) Longinus promotes an “elevation of style” and an essence of “simplicity”: “the Sublime refers to a style of writing that elevates itself above the ordinary”… five sources of the Sublime: “great thoughts, strong emotions, certain … | Summary and Analysis | English literature || Hi AD though its origin and are. This email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and how a human must control and... Style of the Sublime has a long history, dating to about 1st! 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