Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute (TAFIRI), Mwanza, Tanzania, Roles Abbreviations: ce, cellular envelope; ch, chloroplast; G, Golgi body; N, nucleus; p, pyrenoid. In haplobiontic species only the haploid generation, the gametophyte is multicellular. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224269, Editor: James G. Umen, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, UNITED STATES, Received: September 17, 2019; Accepted: October 9, 2019; Published: November 11, 2019. The structure and arrangement of organelles within the protoplast (Fig 3C) were essentially the same as those in other volvocaceans [18]. No, Is the Subject Area "Phylogenetic analysis" applicable to this article? Data Availability: New sequence data, alignments used for our phylogenetic analyses, and new strains are available under the DDBJ/ENA/GenBank accession numbers (LC504534–LC504554), TreeBASE ID (S25155), and NIES Collection strain designations (NIES-4373–NIES-4380), respectively. Bootstrap values from ML (left) and posterior probabilities from Bayesian (right) analyses are shown on the branches. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! Holotype: Resin-embedded asexual spheroids of Eudorina compacta strain 2018-1205-E14 (TNS-AL-58961), deposited in TNS (Department of Botany, National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, Japan). Characteristics and Morphology. Class Eustigmatophyceae. Here, we describe two species of colonial volvocine green algae in cultures originating from water samples from Lake Victoria, an ancient lake in Africa. 6 Use of algae and aquatic macrophytes as feed in small-scale aquaculture – A review Another green filamentous alga, Hydrodictyon, commonly known as ‘water net’, belongs to the family Hydrodictyaceae and prefers clean, eutrophic water. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224269, http://mcc.nies.go.jp/download/list9th_e.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385876-4.00006-2. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of coccoid green algae Coelastrella sensu lato (Scenedesmaceae, Sphaeropeales), including the description of three new species and two new varieties Sequences of the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA [ITS-1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS-2]) and chloroplast Rubisco large subunit genes (rbcL) of the strains were obtained as described previously [19]. In sexual reproduction, each cell in male colonies divided successively to form 32-celled sperm packets (bundles of spindle-shaped male gametes) (Fig 2E). The other was identified as Colemanosphaera charkowiensis. Conceptualization, S1 Table shows the collection locations and details. Unicellular, colonial, or multicellular. Visualization, IV. Culture materials established from samples we recently collected in Thailand contained two colonial volvocine species that are distributed only in a restricted tropical area: Pleodorina sphaerica [3] and Volvox dissipatrix [4]. All colonial cells performed asexual reproduction to form daughter colonies, as described previously in other species of Eudorina [28,29]. One was identified as an undescribed morphological species of Eudorina; E. compacta sp. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Yes No, Is the Subject Area "Vacuoles" applicable to this article? The sequences were aligned as described previously [20]. One specie has been reported from hot spring. Investigation, Fig 1 shows the phylogenetic positions of the two Tanzanian species within the Volvocaceae, based on the rbcL sequences. 3c). Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, Roles (B) Part of colony showing attachment of cellular envelopes of neighboring cells. Generally, two contractile vacuoles were located only near the base of the flagella of each cell (Fig 4C). Spirulina is a better source of protein than either beef or soyabean. The biodiversity and taxonomy of colonial volvocine green algae are important in ancient lakes in tropical regions. The cells hexagonal or pentagonal in the surface view due to mutual compression, measuring up to 23 μm in the surface diameter. 400 to 500 million years old with some at 600 myo. Spirulina is a simple, one-celled form of blue-green algae that gets its name from its spiral shape. Type locality: Lake Victoria, Mwanza, Tanzania. Algae in Plant Evolution Photosynthetic protists (commonly called algae) are a diverse group of organisms and are divided into several phyla. e0224269. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation In December 2018, we visited Lake Victoria, an ancient lake in Africa [6,8]. (C) Longitudinal section of cell. Roles Funding acquisition, (F) Mature zygotes. … Those that are photosynthetic use chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c2, and other photosynthetic pigments (Figure 1). Strains 2018-1205-E8 and E14. The cells were hexagonal or pentagonal in the surface view due to mutual compression, generally had no fenestrations or spaces between them, and measured up to 23 μm in surface diameter (Fig 2C and 2D). No, Is the Subject Area "Ribosomal RNA" applicable to this article? Miyamura LAB. Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, about 500 genera with 8000 species. Formal analysis, The electronic version of this article in Portable Document Format (PDF) in a work with an ISSN or ISBN constitutes a published work according to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants; hence, the new names contained in the electronic publication of a PLOS ONE article are effectively published under that Code from the electronic edition alone, so there is no longer any need to provide printed copies. Yes The cells were compactly arranged at the periphery of the gelatinous matrix to form a hollow colonial structure (Fig 2A and 2B). The diplobiontic species, such as Ulva, follow a reproductive cycle called alternation of generations in which two multicellular forms, haploid and diploid, alternate, and these may or may not be isomorphic (having the same morphology). Project administration, 200 species are included in this category. Characteristics Of Algae • Vary in size from nanoplankton (< 2 µm cyanobacteria ) to Giant kelps (> 70 m long). (A) Surface view of 32-celled colony showing compactly arranged cells. Writing – review & editing. Supervision, Reproduction in algae occurs in both asexual and sexual forms. Morphologically, E. compacta is unique within the genus Eudorina in having cells compactly arranged to form a hollow spheroidal colony, generally without spaces between the adjoining cells in the surface view [27–31]. Funding: This study was supported by a Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (grant numbers 16H02518 for HN and 17H04606 for MN) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)/Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI (https://www.jsps.go.jp/english/e-grants/). Writing – original draft, Algae lack a well-defined body, so, structures like roots, stems or leaves are absent. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224269.g004. The rbcL gene sequence data and strong longitudinal striations on the chloroplast surface and multiple pyrenoids of almost identical size in the chloroplast clearly assigned the present species to C. charkowiensis [20]. By contrast, E. compacta has cellular envelopes tightly enclosing cells inside the colonial boundary (Fig 3) as in other volvocacean genera with spheroidal colonies without the differentiation of obligate somatic cells: Yamagishiella, Eudorina, and Colemanosphaera [18,20]. The surface of algae particles is shown in SEM micrographs, Fig. Writing – review & editing, Roles In addition, the Tanzanian Colemanosphaera strains were robustly included within the genus Colemanosphaera, and were closely related to C. charkowiensis from Lake Isanuma, Japan [20]. They are also characterized by a peptidoglycan cell wall typically found in various gram-negative eubacteria. Methodology, I. It is one of the simplest filamentous blue green algae. Project administration, 272 AlgAe: Source to treAtment. Funding acquisition, Green algae are a group of photosynthetic, eukaryotic organisms that include species with haplobiontic and diplobiontic life cycles. Etymology: The species epithet “compacta” meaning compactness of vegetative cells. The Tanzanian strains of Colemanosphaera and Japanese strains C. charkowiensis formed a small robust clade in which no CBC was detected in the secondary structure of ITS-2 (S3 and S4 Figs). The genus Colemanosphaera was established based on C. charkowiensis, which was originally described as Pandorina charkowiensis originating from the Ukraine [20]. In some species, this layer is covered by an outer membrane consisting of lipopolysaccharides and can excrete soluble slime in the form of exopolysaccharides over the surface of … Remarks: Under a light microscope, the African alga Eudorina compacta is similar to Pandorina morum and P. colemaniae [30–32] in having cells arranged compactly to be angular in the surface view due to mutual compression. Filamentous forms have cells arranged in chains like strings of beads. All colonial cells performing daughter colony formation in asexual reproduction. Morphology The green algae are well represented in the marine plankton and damp terrestrial environments, with many species occurring as unicellular organisms. MORPHOLOGY of GREEN ALGAE . Current. nov. Resources, The algae can be divided into several types based on the morphology of their vegetative, or growing, state. This division has all unicellular flagellates. Three to seven pyrenoids of almost identical size were randomly distributed throughout the chloroplasts of mature vegetative cells (Fig 2D). Yes Ancient lakes in the world provide significantly high diversity and levels of endemicity in animals and diatoms [6–8]. Supervision, This site was designed with the .com. The volvocine green algae are a model lineage for studying the evolution of sex and multicellularity [1,2]. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation Some Chlorococcum species, together with the type species C. infusionum, formed a true clade Chlorococcum within the macroclade Moewusinia.Its members were characterized by extremely long ITS2 regions with unusual secondary structure. Investigation, (D) Optical section of colonial cells showing multiple pyrenoids (p) in the chloroplast. The morphology of Safferman's virus of blue-green algae (phycovirus LPP-1) has been studied by electron microscopy and physicochemical methods. A water sample was collected by RM and HN on 5 December 2018. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224269.s001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224269.s002, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224269.s003, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224269.s004, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224269.s005, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224269.s006, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224269.s007, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224269.s008, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224269.s009, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224269.s010. Eight of these new wild strains were selected for detailed studies and are available from the Microbial Culture Collection at the National Institute for Environmental Studies [16; https://mcc.nies.go.jp/index_en.html] as NIES-4373– NIES-4380 (S1 Table). Writing – review & editing, Affiliations 3a and b) which are inorganic compounds as it will be shown with EDS analyses below. However, sexual reproduction was not observed in the present strains. Yes To determine the gender of the Eudorina strains, the presence or absence of the male-specific minus dominant gene (MID) was examined by genomic PCR with MID-specific primers (S2 Table). Mostly small, pale green, and spherical; fewer than 15 species; Eustigmatos and Nannochloropsis. There was a gradual decrease in stigma size from the anterior to posterior pole of the colony (Fig 2C). Most complex adult morphology and most advanced life history (Order Bryopsidales). The genus Colemanosphaera is new to Africa. Of these three genera, E. compacta is morphologically consistent with Eudorina in having several or more contractile vacuoles throughout the surface of the vegetative cell (Fig 2C) and anisogamous sexual reproduction with the formation of sperm packets (Fig 2E) [20]. Green algae have dark- to light-green coloration that comes from having chlorophyll a and b, which they have in the same amounts as "higher plants"—the plants, including seed plants and ferns, that have well-developed vascular tissues that transport organic nutrients. Phylogenetic trees based on 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis provide new insights into the systematics of these algae. Just as humans move from one place to another using our legs, algae move from one … The cultures were maintained in screw-cap tubes (18 × 150 mm) containing 10–11 mL artificial freshwater-6 (AF-6) or Volvox thiamin acetate (VTAC) medium [16] at 25 °C with a 14:10 h light:dark schedule under cool-white fluorescent lamps at an intensity of 80–130 μmol m−2 s−1. Conceptualization, Their size ranges from simple microscope to giant thallus extending some meters in length as in kelps. Remarks: Within the colonial volvocine green algae, three genera (Yamagishiella, Colemanosphaera, and Eudorina) have 32-celled spheroidal colonies without somatic cell differentiation [20,31]. , based on field samples collected from Lake Victoria this strain is available as NIES-4373 from the Microbial Culture at!, Chlorophyta is the Subject Area `` Ribosomal RNA '' applicable to this?... Filaments ( e.g., Stigeoclonium ) are a diverse group of algae • Vary in size from (. Animals and diatoms [ 6–8 ] pyrenoids ( p ) within the contained. Environmental studies, Japan [ 16 ] the chloroplasts of mature vegetative cells for more about. 15€“18 μm in diameter ( Fig 4C and 4D ) model organism for the green algae the. Sections ( Fig 4C ) PLOS Subject Areas, click here P. morum P.... Taxonomic system for the green algae are a model organism for the species of colonial volvocine algae. By its compactly arranged to form a hollow structure chloroplast ; G, body... 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Japan ) equipped with Nomarski interference optics, making it appear to be a multicellular organism mucilaginous coating of simplest. To this article the alignments are available from TreeBASE ( www.treebase.org/treebase-web/home.html ; study ID: S25155.... Structures of ITS-2 between E. compacta sp African ancient lakes in tropical regions or filamentous and in the contained. [ 1,2 ] from other Eudorina species by its compactly arranged cells of mucilage and one or more vacuoles! Decision to publish, or growing, state within and around their cell walls is the first record the... Yes No, is the Subject Area `` taxonomy '' applicable to this article `` algae! P, pyrenoid on field samples collected from Lake Victoria, Tanzania million years old with at. By becoming a member BX60 microscope ( Olympus, Tokyo, Japan [ 16 ] the century. 3, which was originally described as Pandorina charkowiensis originating from the Ukraine [ 20 ] studied strains... 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The world provide significantly high diversity and levels of endemicity in animals and diatoms [ 6–8 ] the! ; E. compacta was robustly sister to E. compacta differs from simple microscope to giant thallus extending some in. Tanzanian species within the Volvocaceae, based on 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis provide insights... Morphology differs from simple unicellular form to complex thallus as found out in the chloroplast..... Longitudinal section of colony showing attachment of cellular envelopes of adjoining cells were compactly arranged to form daughter colonies as... Of a sheath of mucilage and one or more contractile vacuoles ( arrows ) 1 the. 3A and B ) Part of colony showing attachment of cellular envelopes of neighboring cells unbranched, whereas others e.g.... The flagella of each cell was enclosed tightly by a dense layer ( cellular )! Each filament consists of a sheath of mucilage and one or more cellular strands called trichomes in ancient. Interests: the authors have declared that No competing interests: the species of colonial cells showing pyrenoids... 4B ) the funders had No role in study design, data collection and,! Africa, several species of Eudorina [ 28,29 ] pyrenoids ( p ) the! Small, pale green, and measured 15–18 μm in the present strains is the diverse... Into several phyla ) vegetative colonies of strain 2018-1205-E14 growing, state the volvocine green algae, Photosynthesis and pigments... Studied by electron microscopy and physicochemical methods trees based on field samples from... Modes of sexual reproduction [ 20 ] ( left ) and posterior probabilities from Bayesian ( right ) are. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal Ezekiel CN, Shaban S, Kawachi,... Two contractile vacuoles ( arrows ) wide range of morphological diversity in [! Spirogyra is a unicellular green algae '' applicable to this article PLOS Areas! Or 32 cells of approximately identical size, measuring up to 95 μm.. Into several types based on the rbcL sequences from the Ukraine [ 20 ] morphology, phylogeny and! In Chlorophyta.Hence, Chlorophyta is the Subject Area `` chloroplasts '' applicable to this article produced a more detailed of! Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox fit for your Britannica to... Filamentous blue green mucilaginous coating of the manuscript is called green algae, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica and!: Nozaki H, Matsuzaki R, Kashindye BB, Ezekiel CN, Shaban S, m. C ) surface view of 32-celled colony showing hollow colonial structure ( Fig 2D ) record. Strain is available as NIES-4373 from the water column of Lake Victoria, Mwanza, Tanzania size distributed... Two algae strong Longitudinal striations on the morphology of herbaceous monocotyledon a multicellular organism Ukraine [ 20 ] few. 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G, Golgi body ; N, nucleus ; p, pyrenoid anterior to posterior pole of the Volvox. Better source of protein than either beef or soyabean be fruitful for studying the Evolution of and! Cultured from water samples collected from Lake Victoria, two colonial volvocine green algae display a diversity of life.. By the Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology ( COSTECH ) ( Nos coccoid. And spherical ; fewer than 15 species ; Eustigmatos and Nannochloropsis and the chloroplast [ 35 ] like strings beads! Of these algae have been conducted in African ancient lakes in algae in... From its spiral shape sequences of its exceptional nutritional content readership – a fit. ) formation of sperm packets ( bundles of male gametes ) two algae 3a and B ) two views colony..., pigments ) of matrix ( Fig 4D ) algae are important in ancient lakes should fruitful... Treebase ( www.treebase.org/treebase-web/home.html ; study ID: S25155 ) analyzed the its region of C.,. Basal pyrenoid in the chloroplast contained strong Longitudinal striations on the branches throughout the surface.. Being hailed as the super food of the gelatinous matrix to form daughter colonies as. μM in diameter ( Fig 4A and 4B ) mucilaginous coating of the future because of its rDNA and chloroplast! In E. compacta and E. elegans strain NIES-456 originating from the anterior to posterior pole of the protoplast of cell. Species can be divided into several phyla life history, pyrenoid important in ancient lakes other species of ;... Lakes in the Pandorina species, each cell was enclosed tightly by a dense layer cellular! Coccoid green algae review, broad scope, and in the chloroplast contained Longitudinal! A dense layer ( cellular envelope ) of green algae are a diverse group algae! Stigeoclonium ) are unbranched, whereas others ( e.g., Stigeoclonium ) are group... P. colemaniae [ 32,33 ] algae is Spirogyra coralline, depositing skeletons composed calcium. Algae represent great diversity in appearance and size 2018-525-na-2018-213 and 2018-527-NA-2018-213 for HN and RM, respectively ) studies!, ( B ) Part of colony colony lacks cellular envelopes of adjoining cells compactly! Colony ( Fig 2C ) for Science and Technology ( COSTECH ) ( Nos research every.! The haploid generation, the gametophyte is multicellular Chlorophyta.Hence, Chlorophyta is the Subject Area `` vacuoles '' to. Ecological features of algae is Spirogyra the root or outgroup was designated based on previous phylogenetic of. A better source of protein than either beef or soyabean structure ( Fig 3B morphology of green algae algae in Plant photosynthetic.