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Logos: Rather than uncritically accepting things because of the traditions or stories (myths) told about how they came to be, thinkers in the West began in the sixth century BC to try to explain why things are the way they are.They tried to give the logos or rationale of things, a rational (vs. mythic) explanation of nature. However, two of the books, “Euthyphro and… Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Socrates: Athens’ street-corner philosopher Socrates was the big-city philosopher in ancient Athens. 1 thought on “ Socrates vs. Plato: Style vs. Substance in Plato’s Gorgias ” Christina Hendricks on September 27, 2013 at 12:09 pm said: I love your description of reading Gorgias in terms of a series of stages, finally resting on acceptance and a bit of awe. Character, sexual morality, and irony. A defense of Socrates that portrayed him as an innocuous preacher of moral pieties would have left us wondering why he was sentenced to death, and indeed why anyone bothered to indict him in the first place. Plato V Sophists (or, philosophy v rhetoric). Stacy Griffin Dr. McAteer PHIL 1313 September 5, 2010 Socrates’ Opinion of the Majority In Five Dialogues by Plato, there are five books which tell the events which leads to Socrates execution. Outline. He has made the decision to let Socrates speak for himself in this work and to refrain from offering any of his own reflections on the justice or injustice of the charges against his teacher. You can’t begin a study of world philosophy without talking about these guys: the Big Three ancient Greek philosophers. 5. By using Socratic Questioning, teachers promote independent thinking in their students and give them ownership of what they are learning. Socrates says that everything also is characterized by a virtue that has a direct relationship with the performance of its function. In Plato’s Apology, Socrates prides himself on addressing his questions to every Athenian—no one, in his view, is too young or too old for the examined life—and he freely acknowledges that the young love to see their elders embarrassed when they are unable to defend their beliefs. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Sophists helped Socrates to develop his reasoning, which Plato would learn from and use in his own philosophy. Rhetoric’s issues – power, manipulation, relationship to truth. Plato and Socrates are two philosophers that showed differences between them when it comes to their philosophical concepts and thought. Filed Under: Personalities Tagged With: overreaching, philosophers, philosophy of Plato, philosophy of Socrates, Plato, Plato's philosophy, Plato's philosophy vs, Socrates, Socrates philosophy, Socrates philosophy vs, Professor in Social Science and a contributing writer for Difference Between. Accused and convicted of corrupting the youth, […] For Aristotle, there is a radical distinction between Socratic and Platonic forms: e.g. The clearest statement of it is in the Apology, the speech Socrates gave in his defense when he was prosecuted for corrupting the youth and impiety. Eros-Callias and Autolycus-Symposium 8 Two of the classic thinkers who exemplify this kind of reasoning would be Socrates and Buddha. As such, the dialogue both maintains independent significance and relates closely to Plato's overarching philosophical … While Plato, in his masterpiece of ‘the Republic,’ portrays a deterministic, or fatalistic, disposition of Socrates, Aristotle demonstrated his reservation for non-determinism to explore ‘freedom of choice’, ir not 'free will', for political actions in shaping the future. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Plato gives no hint in his Apology that he had any reservations about the way Socrates led his life or the doctrines that guided him; the format of the Apology prevents him from doing so. According to Plato, each person has a function, and the city can be virtuous when each one performs his function. Aristotle’s mainly focused on Sciences like- biology,zoology,physics,meta physics,geology,logic,and also on music,poetry…etc. In rhetoric, Socratic dialogue is an argument (or series of arguments) using the question-and-answer method employed by Socrates in Plato's Dialogues. For example, Socrates would say that the function of the eye is to see. Plato, of course, leaves no doubt that he sides with Socrates and against Athens, but in doing so he allows us to see why Socrates had enemies as well as friends. Thus, it can be said that the conceptualization of the concept of human function is the main area of difference between Plato and Socrates. NOW 50% OFF! He would include other functions such as ruling, taking care of things and living. Plato would call the human function as deliberation. Plato’s view: rhet has potential for harm and for good – thus there is a sense of moral responsibility here, and Plato sees this morality as an essential, universal good that must be discovered through language. Fine examines Platonic and Socratic forms, and discusses the features they have in common and the differences between them. So… For this reason, philosophy may come to be seen as a dangerous and disreputable pursuit. 2. This is the philosophy of Socrates. On the other hand, Socrates did not speak much about the soul. One of the primary differences between Plato and Socrates is that Plato gave a lot of importance to the soul of the human being than the body. This definition, while technically correct, does not encompass the full extent of the Socratic Method. Plato, on the other hand, refutes the position that injustice is better than justice. on Aristotle's view, since Plato's forms are separate, they are not just universals, but also particulars, whereas Socratic forms are close to Aristotle's conception of universals. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy: Legal. The Socrates of the Republic therefore suggests that in an ideal society the young should not be exposed to ethical doubt until they are well into their maturity. His father was a sculptor and Socrates practiced as one as well, but his true love was always philosophy (Boeree). Socrates held that the highest duty of man was to "care for his soul," that is to cultivate that healthy state of soul which is true knowledge, the attainment of the good. Xenophon and Plato-Non-rational desires-The role of knowledge. Socrates Socrates, an ancient Greek philosopher had most of his teachings and philosophies written and recorded by writers after his death which included his students Plato and Xenophon. Socrates vs. Antisthenes. Socrates (Plato’s teacher) is portrayed in conversation with presumed experts and the occasional celebrity; invariably, Socrates exposes their definitions as inadequate. Socrates generally applied his method of examination to concepts that seem to lack any concrete definition; e.g., the key moral concepts at the time, the virtues of piety, wisdom, temperance, courage, and justice. Whereas the Socrates of Plato’s Apology assumes that there is no need to place limits on philosophical inquiry, the Socrates of the Republic—who speaks as the mouthpiece of Plato—holds that in an ideal society this kind of activity would be carefully regulated. It is preserved in the works of Plato and Xenophon.The discussion of moral and philosophical problems between two or more characters in a dialogue is an illustration of one version of the Socratic method. It can be used at different points within a unit or project. This is where Socrates developed what is now known as the "Socratic method," which is asking questions to help rediscover what people knew before birth. One of the primary differences between Plato and Socrates is that Plato gave a lot of importance to the soul of the human being than the body. He would further say that a pruning knife is better suited for pruning than butchering. In fact, we call him an idealist because of his theory of the forms. He ran the Academy, a place where philosophy was studied. When young people first hear philosophical questions about the traditional moral standards they have learned from their parents and their community, and when they see that it is difficult to defend these orthodoxies without falling into contradiction, they are prone to reject all traditional morality and to become essentially lawless. He would say that overreaching is not a good thing, and actually, it is a foolish way to live. All rights reserved. Start studying Socrates VS Plato VS Aristotle VS Other Greek Thinkers. Socrates versus Plato We can conclude that Plato was not blind to the civic and religious dangers created by Socrates. Gorgias is a detailed study of virtue founded upon an inquiry into the nature of rhetoric, art, power, temperance, justice, and good versus evil. Such an examination challenged the implicit moral beliefs of the interlocutors, bringing out inadequacies and inconsistencies in their beliefs, and usually resulting in aporia. He says that everything has its own function that which one can do only with it or best with it. Answering from a political POV: Lots of people will tell you lots of things, but the greatest link is that they were both men who lived under the influence of Greek logical culture. Socrates’ main interests were ethics & Epistemology. Plato and Confucius 4610 Words | 19 Pages. Socratic dialogue (Ancient Greek: Σωκρατικὸς λόγος) is a genre of literary prose developed in Greece at the turn of the fourth century BC. He was born in Athens in 469 B.C. The Socratic Questioning technique is an effective way to explore ideas in depth. On the other hand, Socrates did not speak much about the soul. To fully appreciate the method, it is necessary to analyze several of the Platonic dialogues to Xenophon’s Socrates on moral psychology: conclusion. Plato 427 – 347 BC. Plato was the prized student of Socrates. Socrates always preached to be just than unjust. He also was an excellent debater, and often debated with the Sophists. As a young man, however, Plato became a student of Socrates and turned his attention to the question of what constitutes a virtuous life. In fact, he says that these functions pertain to the community in which one lives. Similarly, in Plato’s Laws, the main speaker, an unnamed visitor from Athens, praises Sparta and Crete for forbidding the young to criticize the laws of their communities. Analects. Much of Western philosophy finds its basis in the thoughts and teachings of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Socratic Platonism is distinctive in that it is able to start from the very ordinary everyday perceptions of non-philosophers (such as Socrates met on the streets of Athens), and use this as a basis for arriving at a very otherworldly worldview. into a family that was fairly poor (Carr). Plato was concerned, even more than was Socrates (so scholars believe) with metaphysics, epistemology, and value theory. It can be used at all levels and is a helpful tool for all teachers. Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms. @media (max-width: 1171px) { .sidead300 { margin-left: -20px; } } Socratic Ignorance in Plato's Dialogues . Socratic/Platonic reasoning is a particular method of critical reasoning. Socrates was the first of the three great Athenian philosophers. As per the example discussed above, the virtue of the eye is the sight, and the virtue of the pruning knife is its sharpness. The Socratic Method is generally thought of as a series of questions which lead to an answer or answers that are in some way, truthful. But, in the Republic, he puts into the mouth of its principal interlocutor, “Socrates,” an observation about the corrosive power that philosophy can have when it takes hold at too early an age. The Socratic method is a different style of education than a lecture because it relies on dialogue or Dialectic between teacher and student. Xenophon’s Symposium . The compilation of books gives insight into Socrates’ philosophical views regarding a numbers of moral questions. He … This, of course, is not a restriction that the historical Socrates imposed on himself. I then explain the value of the Socratic Method. Religious scandal and the coup of the oligarchs, The perceived fragility of Athenian democracy. As Socrates says often in Plato's dialogues, he … Plato on the other hand interested much in literature,education,society,love,friendship,rhetoric,arts etc. Socratic dialogue is not to be confused with the so-called Socratic (or elenchic) method, developed in Plato's writings, by which Socrates often helped people discover contradictions in their attempted definitions of universals. Part of what makes his Apology so complex and gripping is that it is not a one-sided encomium that conceals the features of the Socratic way of life that lay behind the anxiety and resentment felt by many of his fellow citizens. In view of such inadequacies, Socrates himself professed his ignorance, but others still claimed to have knowledge. Plato and Socrates are two philosophers that showed differences between them when it comes to their philosophical concepts and thought. Socrates vs. Buddha Comparisons and Contrasts between Socrates and Buddha In modern day philosophy there are a number of different ideas that were developed over the centuries, to help humankind to live a happy and moral life. We can conclude that Plato was not blind to the civic and religious dangers created by Socrates. Socrates lived a simple life, and did not believe in gathering obscene amounts of wealth. The multisidedness of Plato’s portrait adds to its verisimilitude and should increase our confidence in him as a source of our understanding of the historical Socrates. And Bryan Van Norden compares (with considerable fervor) the Analects to ‘the combined influence of Jesus and Socrates’ (3). 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